How Did Early Civilizations Supply All Their Drinking Water?

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For many today obtaining clean drinking water can be as simple as grabbing a bottle from a refrigerator, but it wasn’t always so easy!

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A Brief History of Drinking Water Distribution:

“Can you imagine trying to live your life without running water? Of all municipal services, a potable water supply is perhaps the most vital. All people depend on water for drinking, cooking, washing, carrying away wastes, and other domestic needs.”


“In the early part of the first millennium B.C., Persians started constructing elaborate tunnel systems called qanats for extracting groundwater in the dry mountain basins of present-day Iran (see figure 1).”


“Qan?t, (Arabic) also spelled kanat, Persian karez, Berber Arabic foggara, ancient type of water-supply system, developed and still used in arid regions of the world.”


“Aqueduct, ( Latin aqua + ducere, “to lead water” ) man-made conduit for carrying water. In a restricted sense, aqueducts are structures used to conduct a water stream across a hollow or valley.”

Ancient Rome’s Aqueducts Held Less Water Than Previously Thought:

“The majestic aqueduct that fed water to ancient Rome carried less of the life-giving liquid than previously thought, new research suggests. The Anio Novus aqueduct carried water from the mountains into Rome at a rate of about 370 gallons of water per second, said lead author Bruce Fouke, a geologist and microbiologist at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.”

The history and future of drinking water, from the Roman Empire to desalination:

“Most people in the big cities of the developed world take the water that comes out of their taps for granted, but population growth, drought and climate change are adding unprecedented pressure to this happy arrangement.”


“PRIMARY TREATMENT to prepare the wastewater for biological treatment. For process wastewater to remove toxic pollutants, Heavy metal removal, precipitation”

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